- My Going Forth A samaneri discusses the current monastic landscape and the experience of going forth into homelessness.
- Bhikkhuni-Samyutta Suttas In these suttas, Mara, the personification of doubt and evil, tries in vain to lure bhikkhunis away from their meditation spots in the forest by asking them provocative questions. Without exception, these wise women conquer Mara decisively. Translated by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi.
Culavedalla Sutta, MN44
- Culavedalla Sutta (MN 44), in which Bhikkhuni Dhammadinna instructs her former husband in the Dhamma.
Dewaraja, Dr. L.S.
- The Position of Women in Buddhism A fascinating research paper on how womenenjoyed more equality with men in many Buddhist countries until the arrival of the British Empire.
de Silva, Swarna
Gross, Rita M.
- How American Women are Changing Buddhism American women are taking Buddhism away from its patriarchal past, participating confidently as practitioners, teachers, and leaders. The job is not finished, says Rita M. Gross, one of Buddhism’s leading feminist thinkers, but the role of American Buddhist women is unprecedented and may change Buddhism forever.
Hecker, Dr. Hellmuth
- Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha An exploration of the Therigatha (Verses of the Elder Nuns) from the most prominent German writer on Theravada Buddhism, chronicler of the history of Buddhim in Germany, and leading translator of the Pali Canon.
Jayantā Shirley Johannesen
- Interview with Ayya Medhanandi, founder of Sati Saraniya Hermitage in Canada
Jootla, Susan Elbaum
- Inspiration From Enlightened Nuns Exploring poems composed by the ancient arahant bhikkhunis (Therigatha), and viewing these poems as springs of inspiration for contemporary Buddhists.
Lottermoser, Dr. Friedgard
Lee, Yu Ban
- Longing to Ordain Tracing the origin of contemporary Buddhist ordination of women to Queen Anula, Sri Lanka’s first bhikkhuni, the author recounts her experiences when visiting the Queen’s stupa.
- Personal Perspective on Vinaya An exploration of Vinaya shows that it contains many hidden treasures waiting to be found by those with the patience and faith to give them a try.
- Smoothing the Way is her personal journey to ordination.
- A Painful Ambiguity An essay on the construction of bhikkhunis as embodied in the early scriptures. The life of the Buddha is designed as a hero myth, and this frames the the origin story of bhikkhunis in mythic, rather than historical, terms.
- Bhikkhuni FAQ Facts about bhikkhunis and bhikkhuni ordination.
- Bhikkhuni Vinaya Studies Exploration of issues confronting fully ordained nuns (bhikkhunis) in modern Buddhism. Includes detailed textual analysis based on comparison of the original Vinaya texts (PDF 1.3mb).
- Bhikkhunis in Theravada A submission to the ongoing dialogue on bhikkhuni ordination in the three main traditions, prepared for the Tibetan Committee of Western Bhikkhunis (PDF 36kb).
- Dark Matter A special investigation look at the slow progress of bhikkhuni ordination.
- Full Acceptance The participation of women in the renunciate life.
- Now is the Time Paper presented at the discussion panel with HH Dalai Lama on the final day of the First International Congress on Buddhist Women’s Role in the Sangha.
- Vutthapana and Upasampada A technical discussion of Vinaya terminology regarding bhikkhuni ordination, suggesting that certain aspects of the bhikkhuni Vinaya texts were preserved in the oral tradition of the bhikkhunis themselves, separate from the main redaction tradition of the bhikkhus.
- Who Trains for Two Years? It is often assumed that all women must spend two years training as a sikkhamānā (trainee) before ordaining as a bhikkhuni. This article looks at what this really means.
- Now Is the Time Paper presented at the discussion panel with HH Dalai Lama on the final day of the First International Congress on Buddhist Women`s Role in the Sangha.
Tathaaloka, Bhikkhuni Theri
- Lasting Inspiration A look into the guiding and determining mental and emotional states of liberated arahant women in their path of practice and its fulfillment as expressed in the sacred biographies of the Therī Apadāna.
- Beyond Ambiguity: Going Beyond Gender Ambiguity in Theravada Forest Tradition In modern times, with open public access via the World Wide Web to the Buddha’s teaching, in ways that may have only had parallel in the Buddha’s lifetime – if ever at all in Buddhist history – the seeming ambiguity of the Buddhist Sutta and Vinaya texts related to gender has become a phenomena of which there is a global awareness. And with the ambiguity, in our modern cultural context, there arises doubt and a substantial amount of suffering, along with waves of attempts at clarification and reconciliation.
- Saffron and Green in the Clear Forest Pool The Buddhist monastic community is founded upon, and well endowed with, effective practices of honest self-reflection and introspection, an eye for the inter-relatedness of conditions that lead to either our harm or welfare, and a heart of great and compassionate caring sensitivity for humanity and all living beings.
- Entering Monastic Life and Ordaining as a Bhikkhuni in Theravada Buddhism Dear friend interested in Theravadan Buddhist monastic life…. this page is written with deep appreciation for your aspiration, and the goodness that can come in its fulfilment.
- Dipavamsa Bhikkhuni Highlights Selected exerpts with summeries and comments from The Dipavamsa: An Ancient Buddhist Historical Record, translated by Hermann Oldenberg and compiled by Ayya Tathaaloka Bhikkhuni.
- The Amazing Transformations of Arahant Theri Uppalavanna
- Is Buddhism Patriarchal?
- The Great Inquiry: An Interview with Venerable Ayya Tathaaloka
Tsomo, Bhikshuni Karma Lekshe
- The History of Buddhist Monasticism and Its Western Adaptation An examination of the role of women in the transmission of Bhuddhist monasticism and its adaptation in Western Cultures.
- Speech on Vimeo. Venerable Lekshe Tsomo explores the origins and extraordinary implications of the contemporary Buddhist women’s movement from her perspective as co-creator of Sakyadhita, the most influential global network of Buddhist women, and as convener of bi-annual international conferences on Buddhist women where scholars, practitioners, artists, and activists exchange ideas and inspiration. Here she examines the most recent gathering, on “Buddhism at the Grassroots”, to illustrate the growth of this unprecedented movement.
- A PowerPoint presentation, entitled “I Will Not Pass Away….Reinstating the Buddha’s Vision of the Four-Fold Sagha” has been developed about the history of Bhikkhunis from the time of the Buddha until present day, using the Aloka Vihara Forest Monastery nuns as an example of a group of pioneering women who are helping to revive the lineage.
The presentation can also be seen on YouTube.
On 22 October 2009, several sincerely practicing nuns received full ordination into the Australian Thai Forest Sangha, in Perth. As a result of this historically significant ceremony, four fully ordained Theravadan Bhikkhunis joined the worldwide Bhikkhuni order. May the new Bhikkhunis soon be joined by many more.